hyper text transfer protocol version 1.1
suffix type encoding encoding11]
program reads a
request from the standard input, and sends a
reply to the standard output. Besides ~user translation and virtual hosting
support (see below), all file requests are from
directory. The server uses
as its name, which defaults to the
local hostname, obtained from
(but see the -v
option for virtual hosting.)
writes logs to
using the ftp facility (but see the -s
is designed to be small,
simple and relatively featureless, hopefully increasing its security.
The following options are available:
- Enables daemon mode, where
bozohttpd detaches from the current terminal,
running in the background and servicing HTTP requests.
- Adds a new CGI handler program for a particular file type.
The suffix should be any normal file
suffix, and the cgihandler should be a
full path to an interpreter. This option is the only way to enable CGI
programs that exist outside of the cgibin directory to be executed.
Multiple -C options may be passed.
- Enables the CGI/1.1 interface. The
cgibin directory is expected to contain
the CGI programs to be used. bozohttpd looks
for URL's in the form of
⟨scriptname⟩ is a valid CGI program in the
cgibin directory. In other words, all CGI
URL's must begin with /cgi-bin/. Note that
the CGI/1.1 interface is available with ~user
translation using -E switch.
- Causes bozohttpd to not clear
the environment when used with either the -t
or -U options.
- Stops the -b flag from
bozohttpd detaching from the tty and going
into the background.
- Get the bozohttpd version
string, print it on standard output, and exit.
- Causes directory index mode to hide files and directories
that start with a period, except for ... Also
- Causes bozohttpd to use
port instead of the default
“http” port. When used with the
-b option, it changes the bound port.
Otherwise it forces redirections to use this port instead of the value
- Causes address to be used
as the address to bind daemon mode. If otherwise unspecified, the address
used to bind is derived from the myname,
which defaults to the name returned by
Only the last -i option is used. This option
is only valid with the -b option.
- Adds a new Lua script for a particular prefix. The
prefix should be an arbitrary text, and
the script should be a full path to a Lua
script. Multiple -L options may be passed. A
separate Lua state is created for each prefix. The Lua script can register
callbacks using the httpd.register_handler('<name>', function) Lua
function, which will trigger the execution of the Lua function
function when a URL in the form
is being accessed. The function is passed three tables as arguments, the
server environment, the request headers, and the decoded query string plus
any data that was sent as application/x-www-form-urlencoded.
suffix type encoding encoding11
- Adds a new entry to the table that converts file suffixes
to content type and encoding. This option takes four additional arguments
containing the file prefix, its “Content-Type”,
“Content-Encoding”, and “Content-Encoding” for
HTTP/1.1 connections, respectively. If any of these are a single dash
(“-”), the empty string is used instead. Multiple
-M options may be passed.
- Stops bozohttpd from doing IP
address to name resolution of hosts for setting the
REMOTE_HOST variable before running a
CGI program. This option has no effect without the
- Causes bozohttpd to create a
pid file in pidfile when run in daemon
mode with the -b option.
- Changes the default user directory for
/~user/ translations from
- Sets the internal server version to
- Forces logging to be set to stderr always.
- Makes bozohttpd chroot to the
specified directory before answering requests. Every other path should be
specified relative to the new root, if this option is used. Note that the
current environment is normally replaced with an empty environment with
this option, unless the -e option is also
- Causes bozohttpd to switch to
the user and the groups of username after
initialization. This option, like -t above,
causes bozohttpd to clear the environment
unless the -e option is given.
- Enables the transformation of Uniform Resource Locators of
the form /~user/ into the directory
~user/public_html (but see the
-p option above).
- Enables CGI/1.1 interface for
~user translation. Note that enabling this
support implies that users can run commands as web server user, this may
have security implications.
- Sets the backup virtual host directory to the
slashdir argument. If no directory exists
in virtualroot for the request, then
slashdir will be used. The default
behaviour is to return 404 (Not Found.)
- Enables virtual hosting support. Directories in
virtualroot will be searched for a
matching virtual host name, when parsing the HTML request. If a matching
name is found, it will be used as both the server's real name,
[myname], and as
the slashdir. See the
EXAMPLES section for an
example of using this option.
- Enables directory indexing. A directory index will be
generated only when the default file (i.e.
index.html normally) is not present.
- Changes the default file read for directories from
“index.html” to index.
- Sets the list of SSL ciphers (see
- Sets the path to the server certificate file and the
private key file in pem format. It also causes
bozohttpd to start SSL mode.
Note that in bozohttpd
versions 20031005 and prior
that supported the -C
options, they took a single space-separated
argument that was parsed. since version 20040828, they take multiple options
(2 in the case of -C
and 4 in the case of
default to process incoming TCP connections for HTTP requests (but see the
has little internal networking
knowledge. (Indeed, you can run it on the command line with little change of
functionality.) A typical
entry would be:
http stream tcp nowait:600 _httpd /usr/libexec/httpd httpd /var/www
http stream tcp6 nowait:600 _httpd /usr/libexec/httpd httpd /var/www
This would serve web pages from /var/www
IPv4 and IPv6 ports. The :600
requests per minute to 600, up from the
default of 40.
Using the NetBSD
can provide multiple IP-address based HTTP servers by having multiple
listening ports with different configurations.
This server supports the HTTP/0.9
standards. Support for these protocols
is very minimal and many optional features are not supported.
can be compiled without CGI support
(NO_CGIBIN_SUPPORT), user transformations (NO_USER_SUPPORT), directory index
support (NO_DIRINDEX_SUPPORT), daemon mode support (NO_DAEMON_MODE), dynamic
MIME content (NO_DYNAMIC_CONTENT), Lua support (NO_LUA_SUPPORT), and SSL
support (NO_SSL_SUPPORT) by defining the listed macros when building
has support for HTTP Basic Authorisation.
If a file named .htpasswd
exists in the directory
of the current request, bozohttpd
access to documents in that directory using the RFC 2617 HTTP
“Basic” authentication scheme.
Note: This does not recursively protect any sub-directories.
file contains lines delimited with a
colon containing usernames and passwords hashed with
utility may be used to generate hashed passwords.
has support for HTTP Basic Authorisation
enabled by default, in the portable distribution it is excluded. Compile
with “-DDO_HTPASSWD” on
the compiler command line to enable this support. It may require linking with
the crypt library, using “-lcrypt”.
has support for TLSv1.1 and TLSv1.2
protocols that are included by default. It requires linking with the crypto
and ssl library, using “-lcrypto -lssl”. To disable SSL SUPPORT
“-DNO_SSL_SUPPORT” on the compiler command line.
supports a very basic form of
will serve the requested
file postpended with “.gz
” if it
exists, it is readable, the client requested gzip compression, and the client
did not make a ranged request.
looks for a couple of special files in
directories that allow certain features to be provided on a per-directory
basis. In addition to the .htpasswd
used by HTTP
basic authorisation, if a .bzdirect
file is found
(contents are irrelevant) bozohttpd
direct access even with the -r
option. If a
symbolic link is found,
will perform a smart redirect to the
target of this symlink. The target is assumed to live on the same server. If
target starts with slash then absolute redirection is performed, otherwise
it's handled as relative. If a .bzabsredirect
symbolic link is found, bozohttpd
to the absolute url pointed to by this symlink. This is useful to redirect to
different servers. Two forms of redirection are supported - symbolic link
without schema will use http://
as default i.e.
link to NetBSD.org
will redirect to
Otherwise provided schema will
be used i.e. symbolic link to ftp://NetBSD.org/
will redirect to the provided URL.
To configure set of virtual hosts, one would use an
http stream tcp nowait:600 _httpd /usr/libexec/httpd httpd -v /var/vroot /var/www
and inside /var/vroot
create a directory (or a
symlink to a directory) with the same name as the virtual host, for each
virtual host. Lookups for these names are done in a case-insensitive manner,
and may include the port number part of the request, allowing for distinct
virtual hosts on the same name.
To use bozohttpd
with PHP, one must use the
option to specify a CGI handler for a
particular file type. Typically this will be like:
httpd -C .php /usr/pkg/bin/php-cgi /var/www
was first written in perl, based on
another perl http server called “tinyhttpd”. It was then
rewritten from scratch in perl, and then once again in C. From
“bozohttpd” version 20060517, it has been integrated into
. The focus has always been simplicity and
security, with minimal features and regular code audits. This manual documents
was written by
Matthew R. Green
The large list of contributors includes:
- Marc Balmer
added Lua support for dynamic content creation
- Christoph Badura
provided Range: header support
- Sean Boudreau
provided a security fix for virtual hosting
- Julian Coleman
provided an IPv6 bugfix
- Chuck Cranor
provided cgi-bin support fixes, and more
- Alistair G. Crooks
cleaned up many internal interfaces, made
bozohttpd linkable as a library and provided
the Lua binding.
- DEGROOTE Arnaud
provided a fix for daemon mode
- Andrew Doran
provided directory indexing support
- Per Ekman
provided a fix for a minor (non-security) buffer overflow condition
- Roland Dowdeswell
added support for serving gzipped files and better SSL handling
- Jun-ichiro itojun Hagino,
provided initial IPv6 support
- Martin Husemann
provided .bzabsredirect support, and fixed various redirection issues
- Arto Huusko
provided fixes cgi-bin
- Roland Illig
provided some off-by-one fixes
- Zak Johnson
provided cgi-bin enhancements
- Nicolas Jombart
provided fixes for HTTP basic authorisation support
- Antti Kantee
provided fixes for HTTP basic authorisation support
- Thomas Klausner
provided many fixes and enhancements for the man page
- Mateusz Kocielski
fixed memory leaks, various issues with userdir support, information
disclosure issues, added support for using CGI handlers with directory
indexing, found several security issues and provided various other
- Arnaud Lacombe
provided some clean up for memory leaks
- Johnny Lam
provided man page fixes
- Dennis Lindroos
provided a cgi-bin fix
- Julio Merino
Added the -P option (pidfile support) and
provided some man page fixes.
- Luke Mewburn
provided many various fixes, including cgi-bin fixes and enhancements,
HTTP basic authorisation support and much code clean up
- Rajeev V. Pillai
provided several fixes for virtual hosting
- Jeremy C. Reed
provided several clean up fixes, and man page updates
- Scott Reynolds
provided various fixes
- Tyler Retzlaff
provided SSL support, cgi-bin fixes and much other random other stuff
provided minor compile fixes and a CGI content map fix
- Steve Rumble
provided the -V option.
- Thor Lancelot Simon
enhanced cgi-bin support.
- Joerg Sonnenberger
implemented If-Modified-Since support
- ISIHARA Takanori
provided a man page fix
- Holger Weiss
provided http authorisation fixes
provided chroot and change-to-user support, and other various fixes
- Coyote Point provided various CGI fixes.
There are probably others I have forgotten (let me know if you care)
Please send all updates to bozohttpd
for inclusion in future releases.
does not handle HTTP/1.1 chunked input
from the client yet.